Einführung in die Soziologie (German Edition)
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Meaning of "Biosoziologie" in the German dictionary. Science of the interrelations between biological and sociological conditions. Wissenschaft von den Wechselbeziehungen zwischen biologischen und soziologischen Gegebenheiten. Synonyms and antonyms of Biosoziologie in the German dictionary of synonyms. Examples of use in the German literature, quotes and news about Biosoziologie. Aus Wikipedia. Nicht dargestellt.
Political Science as a Minor
Bucher Gruppe, Quelle: Wikipedia, Diese Biosoziologie , deren Gesichtswinkel soziologisch Ernst E. Dieselbe Betrachtungsweise des Werner Schurig, Dabei lagen v. Wiese offensichtlich rassistische Konsequenzen fern. Paul Nolte, Anton Wittmann, Those readers searching for an overview of cultural changes in disability in Germany over the last century written in English should read Carol Poore's authoritative Disability in Twentieth Century German Culture , which provides a wide-ranging analysis of crucial phases of societal development with regard to disability, including both Germanies during the time of the country's division from until the fall of the Berlin Wall in Poore offers insights into the social, political, economic, and scientific processes that produce the tremendous range of disability definitions—and treatments—of disabled people.
She shows the boundaries drawn around disability in the arts and state policies of the Weimar Republic to the eugenic nadir of Nazi Germany and to on-going struggles—and increasing victories—of people with disabilities for civil rights, self-determination, and social inclusion. Unfortunately, continuity and change in disability and disablement in Austria and Switzerland even less so in Luxembourg have not yet been fully reconstructed in the English language.
Neither has the diversity of empirical studies in German yet been reviewed in English; thus we begin such a process here:. Numerous special issues on disability in an array of journals have appeared. Thus far, however, attempts to establish a full-fledged German-language scholarly journal dedicated to DS have not come to fruition. Beyond these special issues, a number of introductory textbooks and edited volumes provide a good overview of a diverse and comprehensive multidisciplinary field. This comprehensive overview of more than pages represents a keystone, as it summarizes sociological, educational, and psychological literature, explores the institutionalization of disability and socio-economic conditions, and contrasts attitudes about and reactions to disabled people.
Educational, occupational, and social inclusion is analyzed, as is the family and everyday living. In , Rudolf Forster edited Soziologie im Kontext von Behinderung Sociology in Disabling Contexts that presents social theories that contribute to the sociology of disability. Walter Thimm's book Behinderung und Gesellschaft Disability and Society collects texts from a career devoted to that subject.
Thus, several textbooks suitable for teaching DS in German universities exist, especially in sociology. The Bielefeld-based Transcript Verlag can be credited for contributing to the field by publishing foundational texts.
Translation of «Biosoziologie» into 25 languages
The contributions explore the disability movement, cultural aspects of disability and DS, and disability in society and everyday life. These books exemplify the concerns and research priorities of those active in DS in the German-speaking countries and established the foundation for later publications such as Waldschmidt and Schneider's Disability Studies, Kultursoziologie und Soziologie der Behinderung Disability Studies, Cultural Sociology and Sociology of Disability.
Aimed at an academic readership, this edited volume presents common theoretical foundations and methodological approaches simultaneously with documenting the diverse research interests in DS. In , a collection of texts, Disability Studies: A Reader , was edited by Jan Weisser and Cornelia Renggli , including translations of influential texts from Anglophone DS, enhancing their accessibility among German-speaking students and scholars. In the following, we further discuss a selection of works that manifest the field's establishment, sorted roughly along the lines of history and power relations, gender, theory, and policy, ending with life histories and everyday experiences.
- Elena Semenova • Chair of German Politics • Department of Political and Social Sciences;
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German DS is strongly concerned with two main issues. One is to examine the formation of medical, pedagogical, and welfare systems that classify and serve individuals, but also often stigmatize and segregate. These interlocking institutions establish powerful relationships through their myriad organizations, professional and power relations, and through specific representations of disability and modes of interaction with their "clients. Shared concerns among all DS scholars lie in the emancipation of disabled people and enhancing accessibility, cultural and political participation, and improving living conditions in contemporary Germany.
Sebastian Büttner › Institut für Soziologie
Historically, Eckhard Rohrmann examines cultural contexts and their constructions of difference, from the demonization of being different during the witch-hunts of several centuries ago up to current deliberations about disability. He also analyzes the on-going paradigm shift from paternalistic benevolence to the self-determination and social participation principles advocated, but not yet realized, in contemporary disability policy in Germany. She sketches critically the 20 th century's darkest chapters: forced sterilization, "euthanasia," assisted suicide, lack of provision of health care, prenatal and pre-implantation diagnostics, and medical experiments carried out on patients without their permission.
Petra Fuchs ; analyses patient histories as medical history "from below" to reflect the historiography of disability in psychiatric and orthopedic fields. By contrast, Gabriele Lingelbach examines how the forerunner to "Campaign Human Being" Aktion Mensch , namely the "Campaign Problem Child" Aktion Sorgenkind —a collaboration between public TV network ZDF and umbrella organizations in social welfare and care—constituted and changed the representation of disability. In her study "laughing at the other," Claudia Gottwald deconstructs comical representations of disability in history as she considers the idea of representing "otherness" and "embodied difference".
In the edited volume Disability History , social historical approaches are synthesized as an independent research perspective. Waldschmidt also discusses the distinction between humanities and social science approaches in DS, suggesting that the cultural approach questions our understandings of categories themselves, whereas social sciences generally are satisfied to analyze the effects of categorical membership. Of course, data collection efforts say as much about the state of science and politics as about the individuals surveyed. Focusing on bodies, DS researchers should serve to locate relational inequalities that occur at the individual level.
Disability then appears to be a gendered experience, connected to psychological processes and feelings as much as to cultural beliefs. In her work, Anne Waldschmidt shows the relevance of working with Foucault in DS see also Tremain to extend critical research on disability, discussing historical, genealogical, and governmentality studies as well as her own approach of the "flexible-normalistic" dispositive of disability. She not only criticizes both the "individual" and "social" models of disability as both subscribing to an essentialist core of pre-social, "natural" impairment and conceiving disability as primarly an applied "problem" that demands "solutions," but also she argues that the body must be studied as a social phenomenon established by discursive strategies and power.
Robert Gugutzer and Werner Schneider orient the reader in the spectrum of social scientific theories of the body, especially which conceptions are legitimated via powerful discourses of medicine, statistics, and rehabilitation sciences as "normal" and how these are reflected in which bodies are considered disabled.
Developing further theoretical research perspectives, Clemens Dannenbeck as well as Heike Raab establish links between disability, gender, and queer studies. Dannenbeck recounts multiple traditions in theorizing disability in Great Britain, the US, and Germany, arguing that a "cultural turn" of DS would broaden the field, increase its transdisciplinarity and support DS as a scientific and political project understanding people not only through their "disability" but through their "social, cultural and gender differences" This emphasizes inclusive principles to support each individual and meet needs.
Addressing "intersectionality," Raab discusses the interaction of class, ethnicity, gender, and disability as categories of difference to extend analyses of social structural, cultural, and gender-specific inequalities. Highlighting the interrelation of inclusion and exclusion, Gudrun Wansing questions the constraints on societal participation of people with disabilities even as they receive welfare state benefits. Michael Maschke theorizes disability as a central issue of all welfare states, providing a broad social structural analysis of disability and its complex social and political dimensions, illuminating the links to phenomena such as poverty, social exclusion, and discrimination throughout Europe.
In his comparative neo-institutional analysis of "intraschool separation" in the US and "interschool segregation" in Germany, Justin Powell explains the institutionalization of self-referential systems of segregated special schooling as the key barrier to inclusion. Although outright exclusion from schooling has been eliminated, both countries struggle to provide inclusive education for all, taking incremental steps toward this elusive goal. Cornelia Renggli argues for a paradigm shift in the media via her analysis of pity and wonderment in contemporary representations of disability in Swiss poster campaigns.
Some research reconstructs the life histories and experiences of people with disabilities in Germany. Based on his lengthy and varied experiences as a vocal member of both the German and American Independent Living movements, Ottmar Miles-Paul emphasizes self-determination as the foundation of DS. Significant gender aspects of DS and the role model of the feminist movement are discussed by Martina Puschke as she analyzes the living situations of disabled women.
Sigrid Arnade , concerned with employment and especially with gender aspects thereof, presents a differentiated picture of conditions and constraints that disabled women face in labor markets. Bodily experiences and self-determination are intricately connected, as Siegfried Saerberg discusses in his study of the styles of perception of blind and seeing people that challenge interactions. In a genealogical study of the nexus of scientific discourses and biographical narratives, Walburga Freitag gives voice to people as she connects the power of medical-orthopaedic discourses and their influence on the self-descriptions and lived experiences of persons that were affected by thalidomide Contergan in the womb: Over the life course, their feelings of being different and disabled shifted, especially through unemployment in adulthood.
Similarly, Lisa Pfahl's study Techniken der Behinderung Technologies of the Disabled Self reconstructs the key category of "learning disability" over the 20 th century and pairs this with longitudinal biographical research to show how the medicalization of the effects of poverty occurred and how the experience of these ascriptions of learning disability affect youth and young adults in Germany as they transition from compulsory schooling.
Overall, these studies demonstrate the processes of differentiating or homogenizing people into groups, situated in hierarchies and subject to normative societal demands. Relying in large measure on historical and discourse analyses, they provide useful methodological and theoretical foundations for DS. These studies describe more than they fully explain these processes, and some lack sufficient emphasis on the ways being disabled was and is experienced in particular contexts.
People classified in psychic, intellectual, emotional or cognitive categories have long been underrepresented in research but see Schramme ; however, this situation is gradually changing, especially in the growing subfield of DS in Education. DS protagonists have been crucial in leveraging the Convention for political and social change. Deliberations about the implementation of the UN-CRPD continue about legal aspects, standards, and fundamental principles and their interpretation.
And society-wide debates now include the quality of inclusion, especially in education and employment, as in health, accessibility, and political and social participation. The most encompassing debates have been about schooling. This is because of the lack of equality and excellence in education, reflecting the persistent segregation of the vast majority of students classified as having special educational needs.
The minority and human rights perspectives that have long been dominant in Anglophone DS have only recently—via the concerted efforts of those in the disability movement and influential Germans who have lived in the US—become commonplace. The UN-CRPD ratification has fostered awareness and debate in both academic discussions and policy debates on the topics of inclusion and participation of children in schooling and issues of accessibility and anti-discrimination.
As mentioned above, the disability movement and the BRK-Allianz have vigilantly emphasized the gaps between political rhetoric and ratification of the UN-CRPD and the living conditions and situations of disabled people in Germany. While school integration and inclusive education have been important topics since the s, these have recently gained salience in general debates e.